Injuries to the nose can affect the external nose and/or the internal nose (nasal cavity). While most injuries are superficial and do not pose serious health risks, others may indicate the possibility if a cervical spine injury or even obstruct the airway. Common soft tissue injuries involving the nose include abrasions, contusions, avulsions, puncture wounds, and lacerations. In addition, foreign objects may become impaled or lodged into the nasal cavity. You can have more information and proper procedure if you will apply for a standard first aid course.
When providing first aid for individuals with nasal injury, realize that other tissues may have been injured too. The supporting structures of the nose, such as the nasal bones and nasal septum, may have been damaged, increasing the likelihood of airway obstruction. Facial bones may be affected including that of the maxillae (cheekbone), upper and lower mandible (jawbones). Moreover, the impact on the head may cause injuries to the back of the head and neck, especially when the head is forced back against a hard surface or object.
In general, emergency care for nasal injuries involve conservative treatment, directed at ensuring an open airway, positioning the victim so that bleeding does not get into the lungs or get swallowed, and controlling bleeding. Here are other first aid measures that you can take for specific injuries:
Abrasions, punctures, and lacerations: In minor cases of cuts and wounds, you can control bleeding by applying a sterile dressing, providing pressure on bleeding site and then bandaging it in place.
Avulsions: These injuries involve the tearing away of the skin from its normal position. Carefully return the flap to their normal position, apply pressure dressing and bandage in place. In case flaps of skin or external portions of the nose have been fully avulsed or completely detached, they should be recovered, kept cool, and transported with the victim.
Foreign objects: Do not attempt to pull out the object, especially if they protrude. Doing so may cause further damage to surrounding tissues. As much as possible, stabilize the object using bandage (if you are properly trained) or transport the victim without disturbing the object. If the object is not visible, do not probe for it. Have the victim blow the nose gently while keeping both nostrils open. Instruct the victim not to blow the nose forcefully. If the object cannot be dislodged, transport the victim to the nearest emergency department.
Nosebleeds: Using the index finger and thumb, pinch the nasal bridge to apply pressure and close off the bleeding blood vessels. Have the victim assume a seating position and slightly leaning forward. Avoid sneezing or blowing the nose at least 2 hours after the bleeding has been controlled.
If the victim is unconscious, or if the signs and symptoms and mechanism of injury indicate possible neck injury, assume that there is spinal injury. In such cases, the goal of emergency care is to prevent further damage to the spine while providing first aid to the nasal injury. Get an emergency first aid course immediately and handle the incident the professional way.